European Commission (2015) Trade for all: towards a more responsible trade and investment policy Available on trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/docs/2015/october/tradoc_153846.pdf Access 12 October 2017 European Commission (2012) Commission proposes to open negotiations for a free trade agreement with Japan Available in europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-12-810_en.htm Access 2 February 2018 Kim J (2016) Nihon no tsusho seisaku tenkan no seiji izaiga ku: FTA/TPP to kokunai seiji [The Political Economy of Japanese Trade Policy: FTA, TPP and Domestic Politics]. Yushindo, Tokyo European Commission (2018) The agreement BETWEEN the EU and Japan is proclaimed. Available for access ec.europa.eu/trade/policy/in-focus/eu-japan-economic-partnership-agreement/agreement-explained/ February 6, 2018 The European Union (EU) and Japan began seeking a free trade agreement (FTA) around 2010 and formal negotiations on the EU-Japan Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) began in April 2013. The negotiations lasted longer than expected and were signed in July 2018. This article examines, taking into account the nature of NAFTA as a representative mega-free trade agreement, how two variables – the influence of the interconnected SAA structure and the reactions of political leaders to the Antimelima – influenced the NAFTA development process. This article makes two main arguments. Firstly, the existence and substance of other free trade agreements involving the EU and Japan have had both a positive and a negative impact on the development of NAFTA. Second, in 2016-2017, progress towards multilateralism and the fall in the market prompted Japanese and European heads of state and government to strive for an early conclusion of nafta negotiations. Marks S, Burchard H, Livingstone E (2017) Big in Japan: how the EU concluded its biggest trade deal. Politico, July 7. Available at www.politico.eu/article/big-in-japan-how-the-eu-pulled-off-its-largest-trade-deal-negotiations-tokyo-phil-hogan-cecilia-malmstrom-agriculture/.
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Dreyer, I (2017) The Japanese negotiator in TPP proposes a permanent Investment Court of European style. Borderlex, May 31 Available on www.borderlex.eu/japans-tpp-negotiator-slams-eu-style-permanent-investment-court/ Accessed January 19, 2018 George Mulgan, A (2015) To TPP or not TPP: interest groups and trade policy. . . .